fbpx
Connect with us

Kaiser Health News

If Lawsuit Ends Federal Mandates on Birth Control Coverage, States Will Have the Say

Published

on

Sam Whitehead
Tue, 09 Jul 2024 09:00:00 +0000

David Engler had been pretty sure he didn't want children. Then a frustrating school day two years ago helped seal the deal for the now 43-year-old substitute teacher.

“It was wild. I had to call the office seven times to get kids pulled out,” he said. “The next day, I called Kaiser and said, ‘I'd like to know how much a vasectomy is.'”

A representative with Engler's insurer, Kaiser Permanente, told him the procedure would be free because it was a form of birth control, he said. But after undergoing the vasectomy last winter, he received a bill for $1,080.

“I felt defeated, tricked, and frustrated,” said Engler, who lives in Portland, Oregon.

Advertisement

Engler's experience highlights how a labyrinthine patchwork of insurance coverage rules on reproductive care creates confusion for patients. Oregon requires that vasectomies be covered for most people who work in the public sector. But the federal Affordable Care Act — which mandates that most health plans cover preventive health services, such as contraception, at no cost to the consumer — does not require vasectomies to be covered.

And that perplexity surrounding coverage may get more complicated.

An ongoing federal lawsuit aims to strike down the ACA's preventive care coverage requirements for private insurers. If the case knocks out the mandates, state-level laws — which vary widely across the country — would carry more weight, a change that would resume the “wild West” dynamic from before Obamacare, said Zachary Baron, a health policy researcher at Georgetown Law.

It would create an environment “in which insurers and employers pick and choose which services they want to cover or which services they want to charge for,” Baron said. “It would certainly threaten access to care for millions of Americans.”

Studies have shown the requirements to cover preventive care have reduced consumers' out-of-pocket costs and increased their use of short- and long-term birth control methods.

Advertisement

The job of defining which contraceptive services should be covered falls to the Health Resources and Services Administration, or HRSA. Two other groups — the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, or USPSTF, and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, or ACIP — make recommendations on other kinds of care that the ACA requires insurers to cover.

The plaintiffs in the lawsuit, a group of individuals and Christian-owned businesses, argue the members of these three panels haven't been properly appointed by Congress. They also say the recommendations for insurance plans to cover medication for HIV prevention violate their religious rights.

On June 21, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit issued what it called a “mixed bag” opinion in the case. It said one group — the USPSTF — had not been properly appointed, and therefore its recommendations made after the ACA was signed into law were unconstitutional. The plaintiffs had asked for a nationwide ruling, but the court said only the plaintiffs' organizations could be exempted from its recommendations.

The court then sent the plaintiffs' challenges to the recommendations made by HRSA and ACIP — including those on contraception — back to a lower court to consider.

The case is likely headed to Reed O'Connor, a federal judge in Texas who has issued decisions undermining the ACA — including a ruling striking down the entire law that the U.S. Supreme Court later overturned.

Advertisement

“O'Connor is a judge notoriously hostile to the Affordable Care Act,” said Gretchen Borchelt, vice president of reproductive rights and health at the National Women's Law Center. “He is someone who is willing to impose remedies where he takes access to care away from everybody in the country based on what's happening in one situation.”

A win for the plaintiffs, she worried, could create confusion about what kind of contraception is covered and how much it costs, which would ultimately lead to more unintended pregnancies — all at a time when women have less access to abortions.

Nearly two dozen organizations — including the American Medical Association, the American Public Health Association, and the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association — have joined Borchelt's group in filing briefs warning about the potential disruptions a ruling for the plaintiffs could cause.

Jay Carson, an attorney with the Buckeye Institute, a conservative think tank, said he's happy with the court's ruling. His group, along with the state of Texas, filed briefs in support of the plaintiffs.

“Unelected bureaucrats” shouldn't have the power to decide what insurance plans should be required to cover, said Carson. “We've gotten so far afield of Congress actually making the laws and, instead, relying on Congress to just empower some agency to do the heavy lifting.”

Advertisement

What power agencies do have is likely to be curtailed in the wake of a June 28 U.S. Supreme Court decision that overturned a decades-old precedent dictating that courts should defer to federal agencies when it comes to regulatory or scientific decisions.

“Courts are going to be more able to scrutinize experts,” said Richard Hughes, a health care regulatory attorney with the firm Epstein, Becker, and Green. “It's a vibe shift — we're moving in the direction of the administrative state being curtailed.”

Eliminating federal coverage requirements for contraception would leave it up to states to determine what services health insurance plans would be required to provide.

Fourteen states and Washington, D.C., currently protect the right to contraception. But states can go only so far with those rules, said Baron, because a federal statute prevents them from regulating self-funded health plans, which cover about 65% of workers.

“It would leave significant gaps in coverage,” Baron said.

Advertisement

A group of Democratic-led states made such an argument in a court brief last year, arguing for the mandates to be upheld to discourage self-funded plans from declining to offer preventive services, as they often did before the ACA.

Even when states can regulate what health plans cover, people still fall through the cracks. “I see denials all the time in instances where the treatment clearly is covered,” said Megan Glor, a health insurance attorney in Oregon.

Patients can appeal their insurers' decisions, but that's not easy. And if a patient's appeals fail, litigation is generally the only option — but that's a long, complicated, costly process, Glor said. Likely, the best outcome for a patient is an insurer covering what should have been covered in the first place.

When Engler called Kaiser Permanente about his vasectomy charge, he said a representative told him the bill was sent by mistake. Still, he said, the insurer kept asking for money. Engler filed and lost multiple appeals and eventually settled the charge for $540.

Engler's vasectomy likely should have been free, Glor said. As a teacher, Engler is a public sector employee, which means his insurance would be subject to an Oregon law that mandates no-cost coverage for vasectomies.

Advertisement

Kaiser Permanente told KFF Health that state law does not apply because of a federal rule for high-deductible health plans paired with health savings accounts. That rule requires patients to cover out-of-pocket costs until their deductible is met.

However, after KFF contacted Kaiser Permanente about Engler's situation, he said the company promised to issue a full refund for the $540 he had paid to settle his case.

“Although we administered the benefit correctly, an employee who spoke with Mr. Engler told him incorrectly that he would not have” to share the cost, said Debbie Karman, a Kaiser Permanente spokesperson.

Engler said he's happy with the outcome, though he's still unsure how Kaiser Permanente's staff was confused about his insurance coverage.

He worries that others don't have the means he had to advocate for himself.

Advertisement

“It's scary,” he said. “So many people are limited in their resources or their understanding of how to fight — or even who to fight.”

——————————
By: Sam Whitehead
Title: If Lawsuit Ends Federal Mandates on Birth Control Coverage, States Will Have the Say
Sourced From: kffhealthnews.org/news/article/lawsuit-could-change-state-rules-birth-control-coverage/
Published Date: Tue, 09 Jul 2024 09:00:00 +0000

Did you miss our previous article…
https://www.galvestontrendingnews.com/kaiser-health-news/gops-tim-sheehy-revives-discredited-abortion-claims-in-pivotal-senate-race/

Kaiser Health News

How to Find a Good, Well-Staffed Nursing Home

Published

on

Jordan Rau, KFF
Fri, 12 Jul 2024 09:45:00 +0000

Few people want to go into a nursing home, but doing so can be the right choice if you or a loved one is physically or cognitively disabled or recovering from surgery. Unfortunately, homes vary greatly in quality, and many don't have enough nurses and aides to give residents the care they need.

Q: How do I find nursing homes worth considering?

Start with Medicare's online comparison tool, which you can search by city, state, ZIP code, or home name. Ask for advice from people designated by your state to help people who are older or have disabilities search for a nursing home. Every state has a “no wrong door” contact for such inquiries.

You can also reach out to your local area agency on aging, a public or nonprofit resource, and your local long-term care ombudsman, who helps residents resolve problems with their nursing home.

Advertisement

Find your area agency on aging and ombudsman through the federal government's Eldercare Locator website or by calling 1-800-677-1116. Identify your ombudsman through the National Consumer Voice for Quality Long-Term Care, an advocacy group. Some people use private placement agencies, but they may refer you only to homes that pay them a referral fee.

Q: What should I find out before visiting a home?

Search online for coverage and for reviews posted by residents or their families.

Call the home to make sure beds are available. Well-regarded homes can have long waiting lists.

Figure out how you will pay for your stay. Most nursing home residents rely primarily on private long-term care insurance, Medicare (for rehabilitation stays) or Medicaid (for long-term stays if you have few assets). In some cases, the resident pays entirely out-of-pocket. If you're likely to run out of money or insurance coverage during your stay, make sure the home accepts Medicaid. Some won't admit Medicaid enrollees unless they start out paying for the care themselves.

Advertisement

If the person needing care has dementia, make sure the home has a locked memory-care unit to ensure residents don't wander off.

Q: How can I tell if a home has adequate staffing?

Medicare's comparison tool gives each home a rating of one to five stars based on staffing, inspection results, and measurements of resident care such as how many residents had pressure sores that worsened during their stay. Five is the highest rating. Below that overall rating is one specifically for staffing.

Be sure to study the annual staff turnover rate, at the bottom of the staffing page. Anything higher than the national rate — an appalling 52% — should give you pause.

You should also pay attention to the inspection star rating. The “quality” star rating is less reliable because homes self-report many of the results and have incentives to put a glossy spin on their performance.

Advertisement

Q: Does a home with three, four, or five stars provide good care?

Not necessarily. Medicare's ratings compare the staffing of a home against that of other homes, not against an independent standard. The industry isn't as well staffed as many experts think it needs to be: About 80% of homes, even some with four and five stars, are staffed below the standards the Biden administration will be requiring homes to meet in the next five years.

Q: How many workers are enough?

There's no straightforward answer; it depends on how frail and sick a nursing home's residents are. Medicare requires homes to prominently post their staffing each day. The notices should show the number of residents, registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses, and nurse aides. RNs are the most skilled and manage the care. LVNs provide care for wounds and catheters and handle basic medical tasks. Nurse aides help residents eat, dress, and get to the bathroom.

Expert opinions vary on the ideal ratios of staffing. Sherry Perry, a Tennessee nursing assistant who is the chair of her profession's national association, said that preferably a nursing assistant should care for eight or fewer residents.

Advertisement

Charlene Harrington, an emerita professor of nursing at the University of California-San Francisco, recommends that on the day shift there be one nurse aide for every seven residents who need help with physical functioning or have behavioral issues; one RN for every 28 residents; and one LVN for every 38 residents. Patients with complex medical needs will need higher staffing levels.

Staffing can be lower at night because most residents are sleeping, Harrington said.

Nursing home industry officials say that there's no one-size-fits-all ratio and that a study the federal government published last year found quality improved with higher staffing but didn't recommend a particular level.

Q: What should I look for when I visit a home?

Watch to see if residents are engaged in activities or if they are alone in their rooms or slumped over in wheelchairs in hallways. Are they still in sleeping gowns during the day? Do nurses and aides know the residents by name? Is food available only at mealtimes, or can residents get snacks when hungry? Watch a meal to see whether people are getting the help they need. You might visit at night or on weekends or holidays, when staffing is thinnest.

Advertisement

Q: What should I ask residents and families in the home?

Are residents cared for by the same people or by a rotating cast of strangers? How long do they have to wait for help bathing or getting out of bed? Do they get their medications, physical therapy, and meals on time? Do aides come quickly if they turn on their call light? Delays are strong signs of understaffing.

Medicare requires homes to allow residents and families to form councils to address common issues. If there's a council, ask to speak to its president or an officer.

Ask what proportion of nurses and aides is on staff or from temporary staffing agencies; temp workers won't know the residents' needs and likes as well. A home that relies heavily on temporary staff most likely has trouble recruiting and keeping employees.

Q: What do I need to know about a home's leadership?

Advertisement

Turnover at the top is a sign of trouble. Ask how long the home's administrator has been on the job; ideally it should be at least a year. (You can look up administrator turnover on the Medicare comparison tool: It's on the staffing page beneath staff turnover. But be aware the information may not be up to date.) You should also ask about the tenure of the director of nursing, the top clinical supervisor in a home.

During your tour, observe how admissions staff members treat the person who would be living there. “If you walk in to visit with your mom and they greeted you and didn't greet your mom or focused all their attention on you, go somewhere else,” advised Carol Silver Elliott, president of the Jewish Home Family, a nonprofit in Rockleigh, New Jersey.

Q: Does it matter who owns the home?

It often does. Generally, nonprofit nursing homes provide better care because they can reinvest revenue back into the home rather than paying some of it to owners and investors.

But there are some very good for-profit homes and some lousy nonprofits. Since most homes in this country are for-profit, you may not have a choice in your area. As a rule of thumb, the more local and present the owner, the more likely the home will be well run. Many owners live out of state and hide behind corporate shell companies to insulate themselves from accountability. If nursing home representatives can't give you a clear answer when you ask who owns it, think twice.

Advertisement

Finally, ask if the home's ownership has changed in the past year or so or if a sale is pending. Stable, well-run nursing homes aren't usually the ones owners are trying to get rid of.

——————————
By: Jordan Rau, KFF Health News
Title: How to Find a Good, Well-Staffed Nursing Home
Sourced From: kffhealthnews.org/news/article/nursing-home-shopping-staffing-resources-red-flags/
Published Date: Fri, 12 Jul 2024 09:45:00 +0000

Continue Reading

Kaiser Health News

Lifesaving Drugs and Police Projects Mark First Use of Opioid Settlement Cash in California

Published

on

Aneri Pattani and Don Thompson
Fri, 12 Jul 2024 09:00:00 +0000

SACRAMENTO — Sonja Verdugo lost her husband to an opioid overdose last year. She regularly delivers medical supplies to people using drugs who are living — and dying — on the streets of Los Angeles. And she advocates at Los Angeles City Hall for policies to address addiction and homelessness.

Yet Verdugo didn't know that hundreds of millions of dollars annually are flowing to California communities to combat the opioid crisis, a payout that began in 2022 and continues through 2038.

The money comes from pharmaceutical companies that made, distributed, or sold prescription opioid painkillers and that agreed to pay about $50 billion nationwide to settle lawsuits over their role in the overdose epidemic. Even though a recent Supreme Court decision upended a settlement with OxyContin maker Purdue Pharma, many other companies have already begun paying out and will continue doing so for years.

California, the most populous state, is in line for more than $4 billion.

Advertisement

“You can walk down the street and you see someone addicted on every corner — I mean it's just everywhere,” Verdugo said. “And I've never even heard of the funds. And to me, that's crazy.”

Across the nation, much of this windfall has been shrouded in secrecy, with many jurisdictions offering little transparency on how they're spending the money, despite repeated queries from people in recovery and families who lost loved ones to addiction.

Meanwhile, there's plenty of jockeying over how the money should be used. Companies are lobbying for spending on products that range from medication bottles that lock to full-body scanners to screen people entering jails. Local officials are often advocating for the fields they represent, whether it's treatment, prevention, or harm reduction. And some governments are using it to plug budget gaps.

In California, local governments must report how they spend settlement funds to the state's Department of Health Care Services, but there's no requirement that the reports be made public.

KFF obtained copies of the documents via a public records request and is now making available for the first time 265 spending reports from local governments for fiscal year 2022-23, the most recent reports filed.

Advertisement

The reports provide a snapshot of the early spending priorities, and tensions.

Naloxone an Early Winner

As of June 2023, the bulk of opioid settlement funds controlled by California cities and counties — more than $200 million — had yet to be spent, the reports show. It's a theme echoed nationwide as officials take time to deliberate.

The city and county of Los Angeles accounted for nearly one-fifth of that unspent total, nearly $39 million, though officials say that since the report was filed they've begun allocating the money to recovery housing and programs to connect people who are homeless with residential addiction treatment.

Among local governments that did use the cash in the first fiscal year, the most popular object of spending was naloxone, a medication that reverses opioid overdoses and is often known by the brand name Narcan. The medication accounted for more than $2 million in spending across 19 projects.

Advertisement

One of those projects was in Union City, in the San Francisco Bay Area. The community of about 72,000 residents had five suspected fentanyl overdoses, two of them fatal, within 24 hours in September.

The opioid settlement money “was invaluable,” Corina Hahn, the city's director of community and recreation services, said in her report. “Having these resources available helped educate, train and distribute the Narcan kits to parents, youth and school staff.”

Union City bought 500 kits, each containing two doses of naloxone. The kits cost about $13,500, with an additional $56,000 set aside for similar projects, including backpacks containing Narcan kits and training materials for high school students.

Union City also plans to expand its outreach to homeless people to fund drug education and recovery services, including addiction counseling.

Those are the sorts of lifesaving services that Verdugo, the Los Angeles advocate, said are desperately needed as deaths of people living on the streets pile up.

Advertisement

She lost her 46-year-old husband, Jesse Baumgartner, in June of last year to an addiction that started after he was prescribed pain medications for a high school wrestling injury. He tried kicking his habit for six years using methadone, but each time prescribers lowered his dosage the cravings drove him back to illicit drugs.

“It was just this horrible roller coaster of him not being able to get off of it,” Verdugo said.

By then the couple had survived 4½ years of being homeless and had been in stable housing for about two years.

Advertisement

Fentanyl use, particularly among homeless people, “is just rampant,” she said. People sometimes are initially exposed to the cheap, highly addictive substance unknowingly when it is mixed with something else.

“Once they start using it, it's like they just can't backtrack,” said Verdugo, who works as a community organizer for Ground Game LA.

So she leaves boxes of naloxone at homeless encampments in the hope of saving lives.

“They definitely use it, because it's needed right then — they can't wait for an ambulance to come out,” she said.

Cities Backtrack on Spending for Law Enforcement

Advertisement

By contrast, the cities of Irvine and Riverside, both in Greater Los Angeles, listed plans to prioritize law enforcement by buying portable drug analyzers, though neither city did so in the first fiscal year, 2022-23. Their inclination mirrored patterns elsewhere in the country, with millions in settlement funds flowing to police departments and jails.

But such uses of the money have stirred controversy, and both cities backed away from the drug analyzer purchase after the Department of Health Care Services issued rules that opioid settlement funds may not be used for certain law enforcement efforts. The rules specifically excluded “equipment for the purpose of evidence gathering for prosecution, such as the TruNarc Handheld Narcotics Analyzer.”

In Hawthorne, also near Los Angeles, the police department had already spent about $25,000 of settlement funds on an initial installment to buy 80 BolaWraps, devices that shoot Kevlar tethers to wrap around a person's limbs or torso.

After the state said BolaWraps were not an allowable expense, the city said it would find other funding sources to pay the remaining installments.

Santa Rosa, in California's wine country, spent nearly $30,000 on police officer wellness and support.

Advertisement

The funds allowed the police department to boost its contracted wellness coordinator from a part-time to a full-time position, and to buy a mobile machine to measure electrical activity in the brain, said Sgt. Patricia Seffens, a spokesperson.

The goal is to use the technology on police officers to help “assess the traumatic impact of responding to the increasing overdose calls,” Seffens said in an email.

In Dublin, east of San Francisco, officials are using part of their $62,000 in settlement cash for a D.A.R.E. program.

D.A.R.E., which stands for Drug Abuse Resistance Education, is a series of classes taught by police officers in schools to encourage students to resist peer pressure and avoid drugs. It was initially developed during the “Just Say No” campaign in the 1980s.

Studies have found inconsistent results from the program and no long-term effects on drug use, leading many researchers to dismiss it as “ineffective.”

Advertisement

But on its website, D.A.R.E. cites studies since the program was updated in 2009, which found “a positive effect” on fifth graders and “statistically significant reductions” in drinking and smoking about four months after completing the program.

“The D.A.R.E. program when it first came out looks a lot, lot different than what it looks like right now,” said Nate Schmidt, the Dublin police chief.

Schmidt said additional settlement money will be used to distribute naloxone to residents and stock it at schools and city facilities.

Other local governments in California spent modest sums on a wide range of addiction-related measures. Ukiah, in Mendocino County, north of San Francisco, spent $11,000 for a new heating and air conditioning system for a local drug treatment center. Orange and San Mateo counties spent settlement funds in part on medication-assisted treatment for people incarcerated in their jails. The city of Oceanside spent $16,000 to showcase drug prevention art and made by middle school students in local movie theaters, in public spaces, and on buses and taxis.

The Department of Health Care Services said it plans to release a statewide report on how the funds were spent, as well as the individual city and county reports, by year's end.

Advertisement

This article was produced by KFF Health News, a national newsroom that produces in-depth journalism about health issues and is one of the core operating programs at KFF — the independent source for health policy research, polling, and journalism. 

——————————
By: Aneri Pattani and Don Thompson
Title: Lifesaving Drugs and Police Projects Mark First Use of Opioid Settlement Cash in California
Sourced From: kffhealthnews.org/news/article/drugs-police-projects-first-california-opioid-settlement-spending/
Published Date: Fri, 12 Jul 2024 09:00:00 +0000

Continue Reading

Kaiser Health News

KFF Health News’ ‘What the Health?’: GOP Platform Muddies Abortion Waters

Published

on

Thu, 11 Jul 2024 20:00:00 +0000

The Host

Julie Rovner
KFF


@jrovner


Read Julie's stories.

Julie Rovner is chief Washington correspondent and host of KFF ' weekly health policy news , “What the Health?” A noted expert on health policy issues, Julie is the author of the critically praised reference book “Health Care Politics and Policy A to Z,” now in its third edition.

Advertisement

Republicans released a draft party platform in advance of the GOP national convention next week, and while it is being described as softening the party's stance opposing abortion, support from major groups that oppose abortion suggests that claim may be something of a mirage.

Meanwhile, the Federal Trade Commission is taking on the pharmacy benefits management industry as it prepares to file suit charging that the largest PBMs engage in anticompetitive behavior that raises patients' drug costs.

This week's panelists are Julie Rovner of KFF Health News, Jessie Hellmann of CQ Roll Call, Shefali Luthra of The 19th News, and Sandhya Raman of CQ Roll Call.

Panelists

Jessie Hellmann
CQ Roll Call


@jessiehellmann

Advertisement


Read Jessie's stories.

Shefali Luthra
The 19th


@shefalil


Read Shefali's stories.

Sandhya Raman
CQ Roll Call

Advertisement


@SandhyaWrites


Read Sandhya's stories.

Among the takeaways from this week's episode:

  • For the first time in decades, the GOP presidential platform will not include a call for a national abortion ban. But Republicans are hardly soft-pedaling the issue: The new platform effectively asserts that abortion violates the 14th Amendment, which guarantees equal protection under the law for all citizens — including, under their reading, human embryos. Under that argument, abortion opponents may already have the constitutional justification they need to defend in court further restrictions on the procedure.
  • Lawmakers in Washington are making early progress on government spending bills, including for the Department of Health and Human Services. Some political issues, like access to gender-affirming care for service members and minors, are creating wrinkles. Congress will likely need to pass a stopgap spending measure to avoid a government shutdown this fall.
  • And a new report from the Federal Trade Commission illuminates the sweeping control of a handful of pharmacy benefits managers over most of the nation's prescription drugs. As the government eyes lawsuits against some of the major PBMs alleging anticompetitive behavior, the findings bolster the case that PBMs are inflating drug prices.

Also this week, Rovner interviews Jennifer Klein, director of the White House Gender Policy Council, about the Biden administration's policies to ensure access to reproductive health care.

Plus, for “extra credit” the panelists suggest health policy stories they read this week that they think you should read, too:

Julie Rovner: STAT News' “Troubled For-Profit Chains Are Stealthily Operating Dozens of Psychiatric Hospitals Under Nonprofits' Names,” by Tara Bannow.

Advertisement

Jessie Hellmann: North Carolina Health News' “N.C. House Wants to Spend Opioid Money on Multiple Abstinence-Based Recovery Centers, While Experts Stress Access to Medication,” by Grace Vitaglione.

Shefali Luthra: The Washington Post's “These GOP Women Begged the Party to Abandon Abortion. Then Came Backlash,” by Caroline Kitchener.

Sandhya Raman: Roll Call's “For at Least One Abortion Clinic, Dobbs Eased Stressors,” by Sandhya Raman.

Credits

Francis Ying
Audio producer

Emmarie Huetteman
Editor

Advertisement

To hear all our click here.

And subscribe to KFF Health News' “What the Health?” on SpotifyApple PodcastsPocket Casts, or wherever you listen to podcasts.

——————————
Title: KFF Health News' ‘What the Health?': GOP Platform Muddies Abortion Waters
Sourced From: kffhealthnews.org/news/podcast/what-the-health-355-gop-platform-abortion-gender-july-11-2024/
Published Date: Thu, 11 Jul 2024 20:00:00 +0000

Did you miss our previous article…
https://www.galvestontrendingnews.com/kaiser-health-news/colorado-dropped-medicaid-enrollees-as-red-states-have-alarming-advocates-for-the-poor/

Advertisement
Continue Reading

News from the South

Trending